Types of Circuit Breaker and its Application in Substation Protection

Types of Circuit Breaker and its Application in Substation Protection

Types of Circuit Breaker

Abstract for this guide about Types of Circuit Breaker 

Power system consists of the generation, transmission, distribution, and substation. All the power system component requires suitable protection devices as the protection system to protect the system during fault occur. In this paper, the circuit breaker has been selected as one of the protection devices in several applications. 

The types of circuit breaker that has been reviewed in this paper are oil circuit breaker (OCB), air circuit breaker (ACB), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) circuit breaker, vacuum circuit breaker, and DC breaker which are hybrid DC breaker and solid-state DC breaker. 

Normally, the systems or the circuits disrupted or damaged by the fault. To implement the protection system in the system or circuit, the type of faults and cause of faults should be known to overcome the fault. To provide the suitable voltage for the consumer, the substation is needed to control the voltage transmitted at high voltage from the generating station. Protection system is also required in a substation.

A circuit breaker also known as the automatically operated electrical switch that functions when a fault detected by interrupting the current flow. There are various sizes of circuit breaker which are from small devices up to large switchgear that used to protect low current circuit until high voltage circuit. Four types of circuit breaker will discuss in this paper which as mention in the introduction; oil, air, SF6, and vacuum circuit breaker. The basic operation of the circuit breaker as shown in Figure 1.
  • A circuit breaker has two contacts which are a fixed contact and a moving contact. 
  • In the normal conditions, these two contacts stay in the closed position which is these two contact is touched each other. 
  • When a circuit breaker is required to isolate the faulty parts in the system, the moving contact moves to disturb the normal condition circuit. 
  • During the two contacts separate, the current flow will be interrupted. As a result, an arcing formation formed between the contacts. 
  • The closed chamber is to place the contacts and in that closed chamber is contained the insulating medium which is gas or liquid. This insulating medium is to quench the arc.
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